Wednesday, Fabruary 28, 2024 AD / Sha’aban 18, 1445 AH
Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani
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1 . أَخْبَرَنَا الْحَسَنُ بْنُ الْقَاسِمِ الطِّهْرَانِيُّ، قَالَ: سَأَلَنِي طَبِيبٌ بِإِيرَانَ أَنْ أَسْأَلَ الْمَنْصُورَ الْهَاشِمِيَّ الْخُرَاسَانِيَّ أَيَّدَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْ تَوَقُّفِ نَشَاطِ الدِّمَاغِ طُرًّا، فَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنْهُ، فَقَالَ: سَكْرَةٌ مِنْ سَكَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ، قُلْتُ: تُرِيدُ حَيَاةً غَيْرَ مُسْتَقِرَّةٍ؟ قَالَ: هَكَذَا يَقُولُونَ.

Translation of the saying:

Hassan Ibn Qasim Tehrani informed us, he said: A doctor in Iran asked me to ask his honor Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani may God support him about stopping all brain activities, and I asked, so he said: It is one type of unconsciousness from all types of death unconsciousness. I said: Do you mean unsettled life? He said: (The jurists) call it that.

2 . أَخْبَرَنَا صَالِحُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ السَّبْزَوَارِيُّ، قَالَ: سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الطَّبِيبِ يُدْخِلُ جِهَازًا فِي جَوْفِ مَنْ مَاتَ دِمَاغُهُ، فَيُحَرِّكُ قَلْبَهُ، قَالَ: ذَلِكَ لَحْمٌ يَعْبَثُ بِهِ.

Translation of the saying:

Salih ibn Muhammad al-Sabzawari informed us, he said: I asked his honor about a doctor who inserts a device into the abdomen of a person who has suffered brain death, so it makes his heart work, he said: It is a meat that he plays with.

3 . أَخْبَرَنَا هَاشِمُ بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ الْخُجَنْدِيُّ، قَالَ: كُنْتُ أَسْأَلُ الْمَنْصُورَ فَأَكْتُبُ مَا يُجِيبُنِي، فَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الْمَرْأَةِ يُدْرِكُهَا الْمَوْتُ وَفِي بَطْنِهَا وَلَدٌ يَرْكُلُ، قَالَ: يُشَقُّ بَطْنُهَا وَيُخْرَجُ الْوَلَدُ، وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلَيْنِ يَخِرُّ السَّقْفُ عَلَيْهِمَا فِي زَلْزَلَةٍ أَوْ طُوفَانٍ أَوْ سَيْلٍ، فَيَهْلِكُ أَحَدُهُمَا وَيَبْقَى الْآخَرُ أَيَّامًا لَا يَعْثِرُ عَلَيْهِ النَّاسُ، فَيَخَافُ أَنْ يُهْلِكَهُ الْجُوعُ، أَيَأْكُلُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ؟ قَالَ: يَأْكُلُ مِنْهُ مَا يَسُدُّ بِهِ رَمَقَهُ إِنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّهُ قَدْ هَلَكَ، ثُمَّ يَتَصَدَّقُ بِدِيَةِ مَا أَكَلَ مِنْهُ إِنْ نَجَّاهُ اللَّهُ، وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يُحِيطُ بِهِ الْمَوْتُ لِمَرَضٍ لَا عِلَاجَ لَهُ أَوْ نَقْصٍ فِي عُضْوِهِ، فَلَا يَجِدُ إِلَّا عُضْوَ مَيِّتٍ، أَيَقْطَعُهُ وَيُرَقِّعُهُ؟ قَالَ: لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ إِذَا كَانَ عَلَى هَذِهِ الْحَالِ، وَيُنْفِقُ دِيَةَ مَا قَطَعَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَادَ شُكْرًا أَوْ أَرَادَ إِحْسَانًا.

Translation of the saying:

Hashim ibn Ubayd Khujandi informed us, he said: I was asking his honor Mansoor questions and writing the answer he was giving, then I asked him about a woman who is dying, while there is a baby in her womb who kicks, he said: her abdomen must be opened and the baby must be taken out, and I asked him about two men whom the roof collapses on their head in an earthquake or a storm or a flood, so one of them dies and the other stays for a few days while the people do not find him, so he fears that he would starve do death, can he eat from (the body of) his brother? He said: He eats as much as he can keep alive if he knows that he is dead and then he pays Diya of what he has eaten (as follows) as donation, if God saved him, and I asked him about a man who is dying by an incurable disease or an organ disability, so he does not find an organ but the one belonging to a dead person, does he cut it and transplant it to himself? He said: There is no problem if he is in this state and he pays the Diya of what he has cut in the way of God if he has a will of gratitude or a good will.

4 . أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ حَبِيبٍ الطَّبَرِيُّ، قَالَ: سَأَلْتُ الْمَنْصُورَ أَيَّدَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنِ الرَّجُلِ مَاتَ دِمَاغُهُ وَقَلْبُهُ نَابِضٌ، أَهُوَ مَيِّتٌ؟ قَالَ: لَوْ كَانَ مَيِّتًا مَا سَأَلْتَنِي عَنْهُ! قُلْتُ: إِنَّهُ لَا شُعُورَ لَهُ، وَلَا تَكَلُّمَ، وَلَا تَحَرُّكَ، وَلَا تَنَفُّسَ، إِلَّا إِذَا أُجْبِرَ عَلَيْهِ بِجِهَازٍ وَلَا يُرْجَى بَقَاؤُهُ، وَإِنَّمَا يَنْبَضُ قَلْبُهُ لِمَا يُجْبَرُ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ التَّنَفُّسِ، وَلَوْ لَمْ يُجْبَرْ عَلَيْهِ لَسَكَنَ! قَالَ: لَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ أَنْ تُجْبِرَهُ عَلَيْهِ إِذَا كَانَ عَبَثًا لَا طَائِلَ تَحْتَهُ، دَعْهُ يَذْهَبُ إِلَى رَبِّهِ إِذَا دَعَاهُ، قُلْتُ: فَإِنْ كَانَ مَرِيضٌ يُضْطَرُّ إِلَى عُضْوٍ مِنْ أَعْضَائِهِ كَقَلْبٍ أَوْ كَبِدٍ، أَيَجُوزُ أَنْ يُؤْخَذَ ذَلِكَ الْعُضْوُ فَيُلْصَقَ بِهِ؟ قَالَ: لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ إِذَا كَانَ الْمَرِيضُ مُؤْمِنًا يُخَافُ عَلَيْهِ الْمَوْتُ، وَلَا دِيَةَ عَلَيْهِ وَلَا عَلَى الْآخِذِ، قُلْتُ: إِنَّهُمْ يَقُولُونَ عَلَيْهِ دِيَةُ الْمَيِّتِ تُصْرَفُ عَنْهُ فِي وُجُوهِ الْخَيْرِ! قَالَ: وَأَيُّ خَيْرٍ أَخْيَرُ مِنْ إِحْيَاءِ نَفْسٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ مَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَى النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا؟! ثُمَّ قَالَ: مَنْ أَخْرَجَ قَلْبَ مَيِّتٍ أَوْ كَبِدَهُ ظُلْمًا فَعَلَيْهِ الدِّيَةُ.

Translation of the saying:

Abdullah Ibn Habib Tabari informed us, he said: I asked his honor Mansoor may God help him about a man whose brain is dead, while his heart is beating, is he dead? He said: If he were dead, you would not ask me about him! I said: He has no sense, no speech, no movement, no breathing except when he is made to do so by a device, and there is no hope for his survival, and his heart beats only because of the breathing that is forced upon it, and if it is not forced upon it, it will stop! He said: It is not your responsibility to make it to do so whenever it is pointless and useless, let him to go to his Lord if He has called him! I said: So if there is a patient who urgently needs an organ of his such as the heart or the liver, is it permissible to take that organ and transplant it to him? He said: There is no problem if the patient is a believer and there is a fear that he is dying and there is no Diya for him or for the one who took (the organ) for him! I said: They say that the Diya of the deceased is his responsibility to spend in good deeds by him! He said: What good deed is better than reviving the soul of a believer that whoever revives it is like he has revived the souls of all people?! Then he said: Whoever removes the heart or the liver of a corpse out of oppression is responsible for the Diya.

5 . أَخْبَرَنَا وَلِيدُ بْنُ مَحْمُودٍ السِّجِسْتَانِيُّ، قَالَ: سَأَلْتُ الْعَالِمَ عَنِ الْمَيِّتِ يُخْرَجُ قَلْبُهُ لِيُلْحَقَ بِحَيٍّ مُضْطَرٍّ إِلَيْهِ، قَالَ: لَا أَرَى بِذَلِكَ بَأْسًا، ذَلِكَ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ، ذَلِكَ مِمَّا قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: ﴿يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ[1]، قُلْتُ: لَا تَزَالُ تَفْتَحُ عَلَيْنَا أَبْوَابًا مِنَ الْعِلْمِ! فَهَلْ لَهُ مِنْ دِيَةٍ عَلَى مَنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ بِهِ؟ قَالَ: إِنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ بِهِ وَقَدْ سَكَنَتْ أَنْفَاسُهُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ دِيَةٌ، وَإِنْ فَعَلَ وَهُوَ يَتَنَفَّسُ أَرَى أَنْ يَتَصَدَّقَ عَنْهُ عُشْرَ الدِّيَةِ لِئَلَّا يَخْتَلِجَ فِي صَدْرِهِ أَنَّهُ آثِمٌ! فَأَخَذَنِي الْبُكَاءُ، فَقَالَ: وَمَا يُبْكِيكَ؟! قُلْتُ: رَأَيْتُ عَظَمَتَكَ فِي غُرْبَتِكَ فَبَكَيْتُ! قَالَ: الْعَظَمَةُ لِلَّهِ، وَإِنَّمَا أَنَا عَبْدٌ آتَانِي مِنْ عِنْدِهِ رَحْمَةً، وَجَعَلَنِي هَادِيًا مَهْدِيًّا.

Translation of the saying:

Walid ibn Mahmud Sajistani informed us, he said: I asked his honor about a dead person whose heart is taken out to be transplanted to a living person who urgently needs it, he said: I do not see any problem in it. It is one of the signs of God. It is an example of what God Almighty has said: “He brings the living out of the dead”. I said: You always open some doors of knowledge for us! However, is there any Diya upon the one who did this to him? He said: If he did this to him while his breathing was stopped, there is no Diya upon him, and if he did it while he was breathing (artificially), I would see (it good) that he donates for him one tenth of the Diya (equivalent to ten camels or one hundred dinars) so that he would not feel that he is a sinner in his heart! (Ibn Mahmud says:) At this time I cried, his honor said: What made you cry?! I said: I saw your greatness in your loneliness, so I cried! He said: Greatness is for God and I am just a servant whom He has given me mercy from Himself and has made me a guided guidance.

6 . أَخْبَرَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الطَّالَقَانِيُّ، قَالَ: سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الْمُضْطَرِّ الَّذِي قَدْ أَحَاطَ بِهِ الْمَوْتُ لِنَقْصٍ فِي عُضْوِهِ أَوْ عَيْبٍ، فَلَا يَجِدُ إِلَّا مَيِّتًا، أَلَهُ أَنْ يَقْطَعَ ذَلِكَ الْعُضْوَ مِنْهُ، فَيُلْحِقَهُ بِنَفْسِهِ، إِذَا خَافَ أَنْ يُدْرِكَهُ الْمَوْتُ؟ قَالَ: مَاذَا يُرِيدُ؟! أَيُرِيدُ أَنْ يَفِرَّ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ؟! ﴿قُلْ لَنْ يَنْفَعَكُمُ الْفِرَارُ إِنْ فَرَرْتُمْ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ أَوِ الْقَتْلِ وَإِذًا لَا تُمَتَّعُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا[2]، ثُمَّ سَكَتَ حَتَّى ظَنَنْتُ أَنَّهُ لَا يُجَوِّزُهُ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ جُنَاحٌ إِذَا كَانَ بَالِغًا ذَلِكَ الْمَبْلَغَ، قُلْتُ: فَهَلْ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَسْتَأْذِنَ لِذَلِكَ أَوْلِيَاءَ الْمَيِّتِ؟ قَالَ: لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَسْتَأْذِنَهُمْ إِذَا كَانَ بَالِغًا ذَلِكَ الْمَبْلَغَ، وَإِنِ اسْتَأْذَنَهُمْ فَلَيْسَ لَهُمْ أَنْ يَمْنَعُوهُ إِنْ وَجَدُوهُ مُؤْمِنًا، فَإِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْجَسَدِ الْوَاحِدِ، إِذَا اشْتَكَى عُضْوًا مِنْهُ وَجَدَ أَلَمَ ذَلِكَ فِي سَائِرِ أَعْضَائِهِ، لِأَنَّ أَرْوَاحَهُمْ مِنْ رُوحٍ وَاحِدَةٍ، وَإِنَّ رُوحَ الْمُؤْمِنِ لَأَشَدُّ اتِّصَالًا بِرُوحِ اللَّهِ مِنِ اتِّصَالِ الشُّعَاعِ بِالشَّمْسِ.

Translation of the saying:

Ahmad ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Taloqani informed us, he said: I asked his honor about an urgently needy person who is about to die due to a defect or disability in his organ, so he has no access except to a dead person, can he cut that organ from that dead person and implant it to himself whenever he fears of dying? He said: What does he want?! Does he want to escape from death?! “Say that fleeing will never benefit you if you flee from death or being killed, and then you will no benefit but only a little”. Then his honor was silent until I thought he did not consider it permissible, then he said: There is no sin for him if he has reached this level (of urgency), I said: In this case, is it obligatory for him to seek permission from the guardians of the dead person for that? He said: It is not obligatory for him to ask their permission whenever he has reached this level (of urgency), and if he asks their permission, they should not stop him if they find him a believer; because believers are like one body that whenever an organ of it suffers, other organs will feel its pain as well, because their souls are from one soul and the soul of the believer is more connected to the soul of God from the sunlight to the sun.

7 . أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الشِّيرَازِيُّ، قَالَ: اسْتَشَارَهُ رَجُلٌ فِي تَرْقِيعِ قَلْبِ أَبِيهِ بَعْدَ أَنْ مَاتَ دِمَاغُهُ، وَقَالَ: يَأْتِينِي رَجُلٌ مَرِيضٌ يُخَافُ عَلَيْهِ الْمَوْتُ، فَيَسْأَلُنِي أَنْ آذَنَ لَهُ فِي ذَلِكَ، فَلَا أَدْرِي مَا أَقُولُ لَهُ، قَالَ: انْظُرْ، فَإِنْ كَانَ مُسْلِمًا يُوَالِي آلَ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَيُوَالِينِي فَأْذَنْ لَهُ، فَإِنَّكَ لَوْ دَفَنْتَ قَلْبَ أَبِيكَ فِي صَدْرِ مُؤْمِنٍ يَذْكُرُ اللَّهَ وَيَعْمَلُ الصَّالِحَاتِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَنْ تَدْفَنَهُ فِي التُّرَابِ يَأْكُلَهُ الدُّودُ! ثُمَّ قَالَ: ائْذَنْ لَهُ يُحْيِي اللَّهُ بِهِ جُزْءَ أَبِيكَ يَعْبُدَهُ وَيَكُونَ لَهُ ثَوَابُ عِبَادَتِهِ.

Translation of the saying:

Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Shirazi informed us, he said: A man consulted with his honor about his father’s heart transplant after brain death and said: A sick man who is afraid of dying comes to me and asks for my permission for that and I do not know what to say to him, he said: Take a look, then if he is a Muslim who loves the family of Muhammad peace be upon him and his family and he loves me, give him permission; for if you bury your father’s heart in the chest of a believer who remembers God and does good deeds, it is better than burying it in the ground so that the worms would eat it! Then he said: Give him permission so that God may resurrect a part of your father with him that worships God and the reward of his worship would be for him.

Explanation of the saying:

For more information about the details and points in these enlightening sayings that open the knots of jurisprudence in the field of organ transplant of patients with brain death, refer to Question and Answer 76.

↑[1] . Ar-Rum/ 19
↑[2] . Al-Ahzab/ 16
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