Wednesday, Fabruary 28, 2024 AD / Sha’aban 18, 1445 AH
Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani
 New question: What does it mean that the Quran is extremely eloquent and rhetorical? It has been said that the Quran contains true reports about the future and hidden sciences at the time of completion. Please provide some examples of these reports and sciences. Click here to read the answer. New saying: Two sayings from His Honor about the rulings on rising against oppressive rulers and helping those who rise against them. Click here to read it. New critique: Please mention the name of the university or religious school from which His Excellency Khorasani has graduated; because no matter how much I searched, I did not find his name nor his fame as a famous writer, researcher, or religious man in Afghanistan. Click here to read the response. Visit home to read the most important contents of the website. New letter: An excerpt from His Honor’s letter to one of his companions, in which he advises him and frightens him from God. Click here to read it. New lesson: Lessons from His Honor about the fact that the earth is not empty of a man knowledgeable about the entire religion, whom God has appointed as a Caliph, Imam, and guide on it with His command; Authentic Hadiths from the Prophet that indicate it; Hadith No. 11. Click here to read it. New remark: The remark “Inverted era” by “Elias Hakimi” has been published. Click here to read it. New video: A new video with the subject “The Call of Return to God” has been published. Click here to watch it. Visit home to read the most important contents of the website.
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Question & Answer
 

One of the doubts that disbelievers constantly raise is about child marriage in Islam. These enemies of Islam mainly cite the narrations that state a young age for some of the wives of the Prophet at the time of marriage. I would be grateful if you could clarify this matter.

The enemies of Islam use false reasoning and create turmoil to deceive those who lack sound intellect and follow superficial imaginations and emotions, misleading them away from Islam and toward disbelief; as God Almighty has warned about this and said: ﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ لِيَصُدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ[1]; “Indeed, those who disbelieved spend their wealth to stop (people) from the way of God,” and said: ﴿وَيُجَادِلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِالْبَاطِلِ لِيُدْحِضُوا بِهِ الْحَقَّ ۖ وَاتَّخَذُوا آيَاتِي وَمَا أُنْذِرُوا هُزُوًا[2]; “And those who disbelieved dispute falsely to refute the truth by it, and they mocked My signs and what they were warned against,” and said: ﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي آيَاتِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ سُلْطَانٍ أَتَاهُمْ ۙ إِنْ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ إِلَّا كِبْرٌ مَا هُمْ بِبَالِغِيهِ ۚ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ[3]; “Indeed, those who dispute about the signs of God without any proof bestowed on them, there is nothing in their hearts but arrogance which they will never achieve! Therefore, seek refuge in God, for He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing.” Therefore, Muslims must be vigilant to not be deceived by them or influenced by their suggestions and temptations; as God Almighty has said: ﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ تُطِيعُوا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَلَى أَعْقَابِكُمْ فَتَنْقَلِبُوا خَاسِرِينَ[4]; “O you who believed! If you follow those who disbelieved, they will make you revert to your old ways, then you will be losers.”

Their doubt about child marriage is also nothing more than a fallacy; because it is based on the false and arbitrary presupposition that the criterion for childhood is age, and that anyone under the age of 18 from any race or region is necessarily considered a child, even if his physical condition is similar to someone over the age of 18. It is not known where this false and arbitrary presupposition has originated from; because scientific research indicates that girls reach sexual maturity between the ages of 8 and 13 and boys between the ages of 11 and 17. Based on this, there is no scientific basis for determining the age of 18 as the boundary between childhood and adulthood. This age is merely an agreed-upon and contractual criterion, while childhood is a real and natural phenomenon, and it is not rational to establish an agreed-upon and contractual criterion for a real and natural phenomenon; because reality and nature do not follow the agreements and contracts of people. For this reason, religion does not follow people’s agreements and contracts either, but rather it revolves around reality and nature. Since the reality and nature of childhood are relative and variable, and it ends at different ages, influenced by genetic, environmental, and nutritional factors, religion has considered its criterion to be sexual maturity, not age. This means that whoever reaches sexual maturity, regardless of his age, is considered an adult and can get married if he wants to, whether or not it pleases the Western gangs who wear neckties, sit behind desks, and make decisions for people of the world; because in the monotheistic worldview, God is more Just and Merciful than to create the need for marriage in a human being but deny him the right to fulfill it, thus subjecting him to hardship and exposing him to sexual deviations and psychological complexes. The justice and mercy of God require that He allow every needy person to fulfill his needs properly and responsibly. Sexual need is a natural need that begins with sexual maturity, and the only proper and responsible way to fulfill it is marriage. Therefore, whoever reaches sexual maturity should have the right to get married, and God the Just, the Merciful has granted this right to him. Whoever deprives him of this God-given right has wronged him and put him in difficulty, even if he claims to be a man of knowledge, freedom, and human rights out of extreme shamelessness; as it has been stated in a narration from Imam Ja‘far al-Sadiq, peace be upon him: «فِي رَجُلٍ مَاتَ وَأَوْصَى إِلَى رَجُلٍ، وَلَهُ ابْنٌ صَغِيرٌ، فَأَدْرَكَ الْغُلَامُ، وَذَهَبَ إِلَى الْوَصِيِّ، فَقَالَ لَهُ: رُدَّ عَلَيَّ مَالِي لِأَتَزَوَّجَ، فَأَبَى عَلَيْهِ، فَذَهَبَ حَتَّى زَنَى، قَالَ: يُلْزَمُ ثُلُثَيْ إِثْمِ زِنَى هَذَا الرَّجُلِ ذَلِكَ الْوَصِيُّ، لِأَنَّهُ مَنَعَهُ الْمَالَ، وَلَمْ يُعْطِهِ فَكَانَ يَتَزَوَّجُ»[5]; “This is about the case of a man who died, with a will to a man, leaving behind a small son, The son then became mature and went to the executor of the will, saying: ‘Give me my wealth so I can get married.’ However, the executor of the will refused, and the son went and committed fornication. He said: ‘Two-thirds of the sins of fornication is upon the executor of the will; because he did not give him his wealth and did not let him get married.’”

It is not known what problem these Western fools have with marriage; because it appears that they have no problem with casual sexual relationships, and therefore, such relationships are prevalent among them at all ages, while marriage is undoubtedly better than casual sexual relationships, and this is something that all intellectuals in the world accept. If their excuse is the lack of intellectual maturity in many of those who have reached sexual maturity, they should know that intellectual maturity does not have a specific age either and is influenced by genetic, environmental, and educational factors, and consequently, it can co-occur with sexual maturity. Rather, nature requires that intellectual maturity co-occur with sexual maturity so that one who has not reached intellectual maturity does not need marriage; because if he needs marriage but has not reached intellectual maturity, there is a reason for his sexual relationship, and there is no barrier to control it, leading to uncontrolled sexual relationships that result in many problems without holding him accountable. This is clearly not compatible with the justice of God and, therefore, is not considered natural, but rather it is what the hands of people have sent forth; as God Almighty has said: ﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ النَّاسَ شَيْئًا وَلَكِنَّ النَّاسَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ[6]; “Undoubtedly, God does not wrong people at all, but people wrong themselves.” In fact, this is the result of the wickedness and evilness of those very disbelievers who, through the globalization of their satanic culture, the propagation of nudity and debauchery, and the increase in sexual stimuli, have paved the way for early sexual maturity in many girls and boys and then, instead of rectifying this dangerous and destructive situation by changing their policies, have resorted to prohibiting marriage for them, thus closing off the way behind and ahead to them! From behind, they push them toward engaging in sexual relationships through colorful advertisements, and from ahead, they prevent their marriage through foolish laws so that there remains no way for them but secretive and illegitimate sexual relationships!

This is obviously Satan’s plan to corrupt the human race, and those who endorse and propagate it, knowingly or unknowingly, are among Satan’s party and serve him, while God is benevolent toward the human race, and therefore, He presents a just and wise solution to resolve the existing predicament. His solution is not to prohibit marriage for those who have reached sexual maturity; because it would be disregarding their needs and considered as wronging them, while God is not unjust. Rather, His solution in the long term is to prepare the ground for the advent of His Caliph, the Mahdi, who will put an end to the rule of Satan and his party over the world, have sexual and intellectual maturity in boys and girls co-occur, and facilitate marriage greatly so that the existing predicament will be fundamentally resolved. In the short term, there are two things: one is to improve and increase family education, which, even if it cannot prevent early sexual maturity, can at least bring intellectual maturity closer to sexual maturity, and the other is to pave the way for those who have reached sexual maturity before intellectual maturity to marry righteous and trustworthy people or those like themselves under the supervision and care of parents, so that, on the one hand, their sexual needs are met properly, and on the other hand, their intellectual weakness does not cause any particular problem for themselves or others. This is the only solution available to resolve this crisis, even if it is not compatible with the taste of ignorant and narrow-minded disbelievers; as one of our companions informed us, he said:

«كُنْتُ عِنْدَ الْمَنْصُورِ وَمَعِيَ ابْنٌ لِي صَغِيرٌ، فَمَرَّتْ عَلَيْنَا امْرَأَةٌ مُتَبَرِّجَةٌ، فَنَظَرَ إِلَيْهَا ابْنِي، فَقَالَ لِيَ الْمَنْصُورُ: هَلِ احْتَلَمَ ابْنُكَ؟ قُلْتُ: نَعَمْ، قَالَ: زَوِّجْهُ، فَإِنَّ الزَّمَانَ زَمَانُ سَوْءٍ، وَإِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يَمِيلَ مَيْلًا عَظِيمًا، قُلْتُ: إِنَّهُ صَغِيرٌ، وَلَيْسَ لَهُ ذَلِكَ الْعَقْلُ، قَالَ: زَوِّجْهُ، ثُمَّ أَسْكِنْهُ وَزَوْجَهُ بَيْتًا مِنْ بُيُوتِ دَارِكَ لِيَكُونَا بِعَيْنِكَ، وَأْمُرْهُ بِالْعَزْلِ، حَتَّى إِذَا آنَسْتَ مِنْهُ رُشْدًا، فَأَخْرِجْهُمَا، قُلْتُ: لَيْسَ عِنْدِي مَا أُنْفِقُ عَلَى زَوْجِهِ، قَالَ: لَعَلَّكَ تَبْخَلُ، أَمَا إِنَّكَ إِنْ أَنْفَقْتَ مَالَكَ فِي هَذَا فَقَدْ أَنْفَقْتَهُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ، قُلْتُ: لَا وَاللَّهِ لَا أَبْخَلُ، وَلَكِنَّ النَّاسَ يَكْرَهُونَ تَزْوِيجَ الصَّغِيرَ، قَالَ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَقُولُ: ﴿عَسَى أَنْ تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ[7]، فَلَا تَدَعْ عِلْمَكَ إِلَى جَهْلِهِمْ، فَإِنْ أَبَيْتَ فَأَلْزِمْهُ نَفْسَكَ وَأَدِّبْهُ، فَإِنَّ الزَّمَانَ زَمَانُ سَوْءٍ، وَإِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يَمِيلَ مَيْلًا عَظِيمًا»; “I was in Mansoor’s presence, and my young son was with me. Then an adorned woman passed by us. My son looked at her. So Mansoor said to me: ‘Has your son had wet dreams?’ I said: ‘Yes.’ He said: ‘Get him married; because the time is an evil time, and I fear that he will go tremendously astray.’ I said: ‘He is young and does not possess such understanding yet.’ He said: ‘Get him married, then have him and his wife live in one of the rooms of your house so that they are under your eyes, and order him to practice contraception until you see enough growth from him, then let them out.’ I said: ‘I cannot afford the expenses of his wife.’ He said: ‘Perhaps you are being miserly! Know that if you spend your wealth on this, you have spent it in the way of God.’ I said: ‘No, by God, I am not being miserly, but people hate getting a young one married.’ He said: ‘God says: “And perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you, and perhaps you like a thing and it is evil for you.” So do not leave your knowledge because of their ignorance. If you refuse (to get him married), then keep him under your supervision and discipline him; because the time is an evil time, and I fear that he will go tremendously astray.’”

It is hereby understood that marriage at the beginning of sexual maturity is not undesirable but rather proper and wise; because if it occurs after intellectual maturity, there is no excuse to dislike it, and if it occurs before intellectual maturity, it can be done under the supervision and care of parents so that it does not create any particular problem. Therefore, it has been recommended in Islamic narrations; as stated in a narration from the Messenger of God, peace and blessings of God be upon him and his family: «أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، إِنَّ جَبْرَئِيلَ أَتَانِي عَنِ اللَّطِيفِ الْخَبِيرِ، فَقَالَ: إِنَّ الْأَبْكَارَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الثَّمَرِ عَلَى الشَّجَرِ، إِذَا أَدْرَكَ ثَمَرُهُ فَلَمْ يُجْتَنَى أَفْسَدَتْهُ الشَّمْسُ وَنَثَرَتْهُ الرِّيَاحُ، وَكَذَلِكَ الْأَبْكَارُ إِذَا أَدْرَكْنَ مَا يُدْرِكُ النِّسَاءُ فَلَيْسَ لَهُنَّ دَوَاءٌ إِلَّا الْبُعُولَةُ، وَإِلَّا لَمْ يُؤْمَنْ عَلَيْهِنَّ الْفَسَادُ، لِأَنَّهُنَّ بَشَرٌ»[8]; “O people! Jibril came to me from the Subtle, the Aware One and said: ‘Virgin girls are like the fruits of a tree. When the fruits of a tree ripen and are not picked, the sun spoils them, and the wind scatters them. Similarly, when virgin girls reach puberty, they have no way other than marriage, otherwise they may become corrupted; because they are human beings,’” and in another narration: «مِنْ سَعَادَةِ الرَّجُلِ أَنْ لَا تَحِيضَ ابْنَتُهُ فِي بَيْتِهِ»[9]; “Part of a man’s happiness is that his daughter does not menstruate in his house”; meaning that she goes to her husband’s house at the beginning of her first menstruation so that, alongside sexual maturity, she can have the opportunity for legitimate sexual relationships and be protected from illegitimate sexual relationships.

It is hereby understood that the marriage of Aisha to the Messenger of God, peace and blessings of God be upon him and his family, at the age of nine was proper and wise; because she lived in a time and place where girls reached sexual maturity at such a young age; as it has been stated in a narration from the Messenger of God, peace and blessings of God be upon him and his family: «إِذَا أَتَى عَلَى الْجَارِيَةِ تِسْعُ سِنِينَ فَهِيَ امْرَأَةٌ»[10]; “When a girl reaches the age of nine, she is an adult woman,” and it has been narrated from Aisha herself: «إِذَا بَلَغَتِ الْجَارِيَةُ تِسْعَ سِنِينَ فَهِيَ امْرَأَةٌ»[11]; “When a girl reaches the age of nine, she is an adult woman.” Their statements were clearly about the girls of their own time and place; as Abbad ibn Abbad Muhallabi (d. 181 AH) has said: «أَدْرَكْتُ فِينَا يَعْنِي الْمَهَالِبَةَ امْرَأَةً صَارَتْ جَدَّةً وَهِيَ ابْنَةُ ثَمَانِ عَشْرَةَ وَلَدَتْ لِتِسْعِ سِنِينَ ابْنَةً فَوَلَدَتِ ابْنَتُهَا لِتِسْعِ سِنِينَ فَصَارَتْ جَدَّةً وَهِيَ ابْنَةُ ثَمَانِ عَشْرَةَ»[12]; “Among our people, meaning the Muhallabis, I found a woman who became a grandmother at the age of eighteen. She gave birth to a daughter at the age of nine, and her daughter also gave birth to a daughter at the age of nine. Thus, she became a grandmother at the age of eighteen,” and al-Shafi‘i (d. 204 AH) has said: «أَعْجَلُ مَنْ سَمِعْتُ بِهِ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ يَحِضْنَ نِسَاءُ تِهَامَةَ، يَحِضْنَ لِتِسْعِ سِنِينَ»[13]; “The earliest age at which I have heard women menstruate is for the women of Tihamah (Hijaz), who menstruate at the age of nine,” and ibn Sabbagh (d. 477 AH) has explained this by saying: «إِنَّ الْحَيْضَ قَدْ يُعْجِلُهَا شِدَّةُ الْحَرِّ، وَلِهَذَا اخْتَصَّ بِنِسَاءِ تِهَامَةَ»[14]; “Menstruation can be hastened due to intense heat, and for this reason, he has considered it to be peculiar to the women of Tihamah.” Will Durant (d. 1981 C.E.), a well-known non-Muslim historian, has also acknowledged this point and written: «إِنَّ الْإِنَاثَ فِي الْبِلَادِ الْحَارَّةِ يَكُنَّ صَالِحَاتٍ لِلزَّوَاجِ فِي سِنِّ الثَّامِنَةِ أَوِ التَّاسِعَةِ أَوِ الْعَاشِرَةِ، وَيَهْرُمْنَ فِي سِنِّ الْعِشْرِينَ»[15]; “Females in hot climates are ready for marriage at the age of eight, nine, or ten, and they become old and frail at the age of twenty.” This means that in the Hijaz region, it was normal for women to reach sexual maturity at the age of nine, and for this reason, marriage at this age was considered permissible for them, not that reaching this age was the criterion for their sexual maturity; as Abu Hanifa (d. 150 AH) has explicitly mentioned this point and said: «إِنْ بَلَغَتْهَا ثُمَّ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهَا مِنَ الْجِسْمِ وَالْقُوَّةِ مَا تَحْمِلُ الرَّجُلَ، كَانَ لِأَهْلِهَا مَنْعُهَا مِنْهُ، وَإِذَا لَمْ تَكُنْ بَلَغَتِ التِّسْعَ، وَلَهَا مِنَ الْجِسْمِ وَالْقُوَّةِ مَا تَحْتَمِلُ الرَّجُلَ، لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ أَنْ يَمْنَعُوهَا مِنْهُمْ»[16]; “If a girl has reached the age of nine but does not have the physical conditions and strength necessary for sexual intercourse with a man, her family can prevent her from it, and if she has not reached the age of nine but has the physical conditions and strength necessary for sexual intercourse with a man, her family cannot prevent her from it.” Al-Shafi‘i has also said: «إِذَا كَانَتْ لَا تَحْتَمِلُ أَنْ تُجَامَعَ فَلِأَهْلِهَا مَنْعُهَا الدُّخُولَ حَتَّى تَحْتَمِلَ الْجِمَاعَ»[17]; “If she is not capable of having sexual intercourse, her family can prevent her from it until she becomes capable of it.” Furthermore, intellectual maturity in women was also considered normal at the age of nine in the Hijaz region; as it has been narrated from the Ahl al-Bayt: «الْجَارِيَةُ إِذَا بَلَغَتْ تِسْعَ سِنِينَ ذَهَبَ عَنْهَا الْيُتْمُ، وَدُفِعَ إِلَيْهَا مَالُهَا، وَزُوِّجَتْ، وَأُقِيمَتْ عَلَيْهَا الْحُدُودُ التَّامَّةُ عَلَيْهَا وَلَهَا»[18]; “When a girl reaches the age of nine, her childhood ends, her wealth is handed over to her, she gets married, and all punishments are applied to her and for her,” and it has been narrated: «إِذَا تَزَوَّجَتِ الْبِكْرُ بِنْتُ تِسْعِ سِنِينَ فَلَيْسَتْ مَخْدُوعَةً»[19]; “When a virgin girl gets married at the age of nine, she is not considered deceived,” and it has been narrated: «ابْنَةُ تِسْعٍ لَا تُسْتَصْبَى، وَأَجْمَعُوا كُلُّهُمْ عَلَى أَنَّ ابْنَةَ تِسْعٍ لَا تُسْتَصْبَى، إِلَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ فِي عَقْلِهَا ضَعْفٌ، وَإِلَّا فَهِيَ إِذَا بَلَغَتْ تِسْعًا فَقَدْ بَلَغَتْ»[20]; “A nine-year-old girl is not considered a child, and they all have agreed that a nine-year-old girl is not considered a child unless there is a weakness in her intellect. Otherwise, when she reaches the age of nine, she has reached maturity.” Their statements were clearly about the girls of their own time and place. Therefore, there is no doubt that Aisha, at the time of her marriage to the Messenger of God, peace and blessings of God be upon him and his family, possessed both sexual and intellectual maturity, regardless of the fact that she got married with the consent of her father, Abu Bakr, and under his supervision and care. Based on this, there was nothing wrong with her marriage, even though it may not be compatible with the taste of ignorant and narrow-minded disbelievers at present.

↑[1] . Al-Anfal/ 36
↑[2] . Al-Kahf/ 56
↑[3] . Ghafir/ 56
↑[4] . Al Imran/ 149
↑[5] . Al-Kafi by al-Kulayni, vol. 7, p. 69; Man La Yahduruh al-Faqih by ibn Babawayh, vol. 4, p. 222
↑[6] . Yunus/ 44
↑[7] . Al-Baqarah/ 216
↑[8] . Al-Kafi by al-Kulayni, vol. 5, p. 337; Uyun Akhbar al-Ridha by ibn Babawayh, vol. 1, p. 260
↑[9] . Al-Kafi by al-Kulayni, vol. 5, p. 336; Man La Yahduruh al-Faqih by ibn Babawayh, vol. 3, p. 472
↑[10] . Akhbar Asbahan by Abu Nu‘aym al-Asbahani, vol. 2, p. 243. Also, see al-Kafi by al-Kulayni, vol. 5, p. 398.
↑[11] . Sunan of al-Tirmidhi, vol. 3, p. 409; Masa’il Harb al-Kirmani (book of purification and prayer), p. 587; al-Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol. 1, p. 476
↑[12] . Al-Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol. 7, p. 690
↑[13] . Al-Umm by al-Shafi‘i, vol. 5, p. 229
↑[14] . Hilyah al-Ulama’ Fi Ma‘rifah Madhahib al-Fuqaha’ by al-Shashi, vol. 1, p. 281
↑[15] . Story of Civilization by Will Durant, vol. 36, p. 161
↑[16] . Al-Ishraf Ala Madhahib al-Ulama’ by ibn al-Mundhir, vol. 5, p. 177
↑[17] . Al-Umm by al-Shafi‘i, vol. 5, p. 102
↑[18] . Al-Kafi by al-Kulayni, vol. 7, p. 198; Man La Yahduruh al-Faqih by ibn Babawayh, vol. 4, p. 221; Tahdhib al-Ahkam by al-Tusi, vol. 10, p. 38; Mustatrafat al-Sara’ir by ibn Idris, p. 156
↑[19] . Tahdhib al-Ahkam by al-Tusi, vol. 7, p. 468
↑[20] . Al-Kafi by al-Kulayni, vol. 5, p. 463
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