Tuesday, Fabruary 27, 2024 AD / Sha’aban 17, 1445 AH
Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani
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Question & Answer
 

Please explain how to perform prayer according to the fatwa of Allamah Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani. In this way, for example: first the intention, then takbir, then reciting Surah al-Fatihah, then reciting another Surah, which is, for example, obligatory or recommended, and so on to the end, which is salaam.

I would be grateful if you do so.

Prayer in the Book of God contains takbir, recitation, bowing[1] and prostration[2] with the glorification[3] of God, and sending blessing[4] and greeting of peace[5] upon the Prophet, without reciting in too loud a voice or in too low a voice, at specific times, and in a state of purity, humbleness, facing the Qiblah, and sincerity toward God; as He has said for takbir: ﴿وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ[6]; “And proclaim the greatness of your Lord”, and said: ﴿وَكَبِّرْهُ تَكْبِيرًا[7]; “And exalt Him by proclaiming His greatness”, and said for recitation: ﴿عَلِمَ أَنْ لَنْ تُحْصُوهُ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ فَاقْرَءُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ[8]; “He knew that you would not be able to keep count of it, so He turned toward you in forgiveness, then recite the Quran as much that is easy”, and has liked it in standing position, and said: ﴿مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أُمَّةٌ قَائِمَةٌ يَتْلُونَ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ[9]; “Among people of the Book there are some who recite the verses of God while standing”, and said for bowing and prostration: ﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ارْكَعُوا وَاسْجُدُوا وَاعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ وَافْعَلُوا الْخَيْرَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ ۩[10]; “O you who believed! Bow down, prostrate yourselves, worship your Lord, and do good so that you may gain salvation”, and said for the glorification of the Lord with the name «الْعَظِيمِ»; “the Great”: ﴿فَسَبِّحْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الْعَظِيمِ[11]; “Then glorify with the Great Name of your Lord”, and said for the glorification of the Lord with the name «الْأَعْلَى»; “the Most High”: ﴿سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الْأَعْلَى[12]; “Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High”, and said for His glorification with His praise in prostration: ﴿فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَكُنْ مِنَ السَّاجِدِينَ[13]; “Then glorify your Lord with His praise, and be of those who prostrate themselves”, and said for blessing and greeting of peace upon the Prophet: ﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ۚ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا[14]; “Indeed, God and His Angels send blessing upon the Prophet. O you who believed! Send blessing upon him, and greet him with peace”, and said for not reciting in too loud a voice or in too low a voice during prayer: ﴿وَلَا تَجْهَرْ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَابْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ سَبِيلًا[15]; “Pray neither in too loud a voice nor in too low a voice, but seek a way between that”, and said for its specific times: ﴿إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَوْقُوتًا[16]; “Undoubtedly, prayer is obligatory for believers at specific times”, and said for purification of the clothing and body from physical impurity[17]: ﴿وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ ۝ وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ[18]; “And purify your clothing, and shun uncleanness”, and said for purification from ritual impurity[19]: ﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ ۚ وَإِنْ كُنْتُمْ جُنُبًا فَاطَّهَّرُوا[20]; “O you who believed! When you stand up for prayer, wash your faces and your hands till the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet till the ankles, and if you are in a state of major impurity, then purify yourselves (by performing ghusl)”, and said for being humble in it, which requires avoiding talking to others and other unnecessary acts: ﴿الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ[21]; “Those who are humble in their prayers”, and said for facing the Qiblah: ﴿وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ[22]; “And wherever you set out from, turn your face toward Masjid al-Haram, and wherever you may be, turn your faces toward it”, and said for sincerity toward God: ﴿فَادْعُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ[23]; “Call upon God by making the religion pure for Him”, and said: ﴿وَمَا أُمِرُوا إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ[24]; “And they were not commanded but to worship God by making the religion pure for Him”, and the Prophet of God has explained the number, order, and details of each, and said: «صَلُّوا كَمَا رَأَيْتُمُونِي أُصَلِّي»[25]; “Perform prayer as you have seen me performing prayer”, and that, according to mutawatir narrations, is as follows:

1. Takbirah al-Ihram[26] while bringing the hands close to the ears

2. Reciting Surah al-Fatihah and another Surah after it, except in the third and fourth rak‘ats, in which reciting Surah al-Fatihah is adequate.

3. Bowing, and saying «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ» or «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ» three times in it calmly

4. Standing back up after bowing, and saying «سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ» or «سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ» in it calmly

5. Two prostrations, and saying «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى» or «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى وَبِحَمْدِهِ» three times in each calmly, and full sitting between the two

6. Tashahhud, and sending blessing upon the Prophet, and that, in the prayer of Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani, may God protect him, is in this way: «التَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلَّهِ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ», sometimes by adding: «كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَآلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ» in the first tashahhud, and seeking refuge in Allah[27] in the last tashahhud, in this way: «وَأَعِذْنِي مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَسِيحِ الدَّجَّالِ وَأَعِذْنِي مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَحْيَا وَالْمَمَاتِ وَأَعِذْنِي مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ وَعَذَابِ النَّارِ».

7. Sending greeting of peace upon the Prophet, the righteous, and praying people, and that, in the prayer of Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani, may God protect him, is in this way: «السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ», then, with the face turned toward the right: «السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ», and with the face turned toward the left if there is any praying person on the left: «السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ», and at the end, saying takbir, which is the starting and ending point of prayer, and the borderline between its acts.

This is the prayer that all Muslims of various madhhabs consider correct, and they have different opinions on only some of its details; such as takattuf[28] in standing position, saying «‏بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ» in recitation, saying “Ameen” and reciting less than one Surah after Surah al-Fatihah, raising the hands in takbirs, qunoot in the second rak‘at, putting the forehead on soil, sitting for a brief rest before standing up, tendency to loud voice or low voice in dhikrs, including a part of salaam in tashahhud, saying tasbihat[29] instead of reciting Surah al-Fatihah in the third and fourth rak‘ats, combining two prayers without excuse, and such details, which are generally based on ahad and conflicting narrations, and have the aspect of recommendation[30] or disapproval[31], and doing or abandoning them does not invalidate prayer. This means that the conventional and usual prayer among Muslims from Sunnis and Shias is adequate, although some of their acts in it are without sufficient reason and, accordingly, disapproved; such as takattuf in standing position, and not saying «‏بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ», which is contrary to most received narrations and is contrary to precaution, and saying “Ameen” after Surah al-Fatihah, considering that it has a Jewish and Christian origin and its application by the Prophet of Islam is not proven, and reciting less than one Surah after Surah al-Fatihah, which is contrary to most received narrations and is contrary to precaution, and abandoning qunoot, which is abandoning a good and prescribed-as-Sunnah deed, and prostrating on anything other than soil, which is contrary to the Sunnah of the Prophet and farther away from the desired humbleness in prayer, by Ahl al-Sunnah, and saying dhikrs with a loud voice, which is contrary to the apparent and general meaning of the verses of dhikr, and combining two prayers without excuse, which is considered as abandonment of the preferred, by Shias.

It is hereby understood that what is worrying is not the description of prayer; because all Muslims are more or less familiar with the description of prayer, and establish it in a “correct” manner in general, but rather what is worrying is the “acceptance” of prayer; because it is not accepted except from the pious; as God Almighty has said: ﴿إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ[32]; “God accepts only from the pious”, and they are those who do not associate partners with God in legislation and sovereignty, nor do they pledge allegiance to any Imam except for His Caliph on the earth, and avoid imitating others, and they are a few of Muslims, while the good end belongs to them alone; as He has said: ﴿إِنَّ الْعَاقِبَةَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ[33]; “Indeed, the (good) end belongs to the pious”.

↑[1] . [Ruku]
↑[2] . [Sujud]
↑[3] . [Tasbih]
↑[4] . [Salawat]
↑[5] . [Salaam]
↑[6] . Al-Muddaththir/ 3
↑[7] . Al-Isra/ 111
↑[8] . Al-Muzzammil/ 20
↑[9] . Al Imran/ 113
↑[10] . Al-Hajj/ 77
↑[11] . Al-Waqi‘ah/ 74
↑[12] . Al-A‘la/ 1
↑[13] . Al-Hijr/ 98
↑[14] . Al-Ahzab/ 56
↑[15] . Al-Isra/ 110
↑[16] . An-Nisa/ 103
↑[17] . [Khabath]
↑[18] . Al-Muddaththir/ 4-5
↑[19] . [Hadath]
↑[20] . Al-Ma’idah/ 6
↑[21] . Al-Mu’minun/ 2
↑[22] . Al-Baqarah/ 150
↑[23] . Ghafir/ 14
↑[24] . Al-Bayyinah/ 5
↑[25] . Musnad of al-Shafi‘i, p. 55; Musnad of al-Darimi, vol. 1, p. 283; Sahih of al-Bukhari, vol. 1, p. 155; Sahih of ibn Khuzaymah, vol. 1, p. 295; al-Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi, vol. 2, p. 3454
↑[26] . [Saying: Allahu Akbar]
↑[27] . [Isti‘adhah]
↑[28] . [Performing prayer with closed hands]
↑[29] . [i.e. سبحان اللّه والحمدللّه ولا إله إلا اللّه واللّه أكبر]
↑[30] . [Mustahabb]
↑[31] . [Makruh]
↑[32] . Al-Ma’idah/ 27
↑[33] . Hud/ 49
The website for the office of Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani The section for answering questions
Appendices
Sub-questions & answers
Sub-question 1
Author: Mohsen Ruzbahaneh
Date: 2021 August 12

I have questions about how to pray that I did not get the answers to them from the above question and answer and other content on the website. Please explain about them.

1. Is it possible to say «سبحان ربّي العظيم وبحمده» only one time in bowing, and to say «سبحان ربّي الأعلى وبحمده» only one time in each prostration, or is it obligatory to say the glorification three times? If it is obligatory to say the glorification three times, is it possible to say: «سبحان اللّه، سبحان اللّه، سبحان اللّه»?

2. In the third and fourth rak‘ats of prayer, is it possible to recite tasbihat al-arba‘ah (i.e. سبحان اللّه والحمدللّه ولا إله إلا اللّه واللّه أكبر) instead of Surah al-Fatihah, as is prevalent among Shias? If so, is one time enough or must it be recited three times?

3. In the last salaam of prayer, is this one dhikr adequate: «السلام عليكم ورحمة اللّه وبركاته», or must the other two phrases that are common among Muslims, which are «السلام عليك أيّها النبيّ ورحمة اللّه وبركاته، السلام علينا وعلى عباد اللّه الصالحين», be recited as well?

4. If the answer to the reductions I asked above is no, that is, they are not permissible, is there a way for one who has many missed prayers to perform them in a more brief manner?

Thank you honorable believers for your response

Answer to
sub-question 1
Date: 2021 August 22

Please note the following:

1. Most scholars of madhhabs have not considered glorification or any other dhikr obligatory in bowing and prostration; because God has commanded bowing and prostration, and those two are fulfilled without glorification or any other dhikr as well, and because in a narration from the Prophet about the acts of prayer, only bowing and prostration have been mentioned, and no glorification or other dhikr has been mentioned for those two. However, a group of scholars of madhhabs, who have considered glorification obligatory in bowing and prostration, have disagreed about its number; in this way that some consider that the glorification in those two is obligatory one time, and some consider that it is obligatory three times, while there is a narration with an authentic chain of narrators for each of these conflicting views! Therefore, Allamah Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani, may God protect him, does not consider non-mutawatir narrations as proof, even though they have been received with authentic chains of narrators, and believes that there is no choice but to refer to the verses of the Quran and mutawatir narrations in order to know the rulings of God during the absence of His Caliph, and what is understood from the verses of the Quran is that it is obligatory to glorify God in prayer with the name “the Great”, with the name “the Most High”, and with His praise; as He has said: ﴿فَسَبِّحْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الْعَظِيمِ[1]; “Then glorify with the Great Name of your Lord”, and said: ﴿سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الْأَعْلَى[2]; “Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High”, and said: ﴿وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ الْغُرُوبِ[3]; “And glorify your Lord with His praise before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting”, and said: ﴿وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ بِالْعَشِيِّ وَالْإِبْكَارِ[4]; “And glorify your Lord with His praise in the evening and the early morning”, and this is what is fulfilled by saying «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ» and «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى» and «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي وَبِحَمْدِهِ» one time or by adding «وَبِحَمْدِهِ» to one of the two previous glorifications in each prayer, and what is understood from mutawatir narrations, which is certain common and definite among the existing narrations, is that glorifying God in prayer must be done in bowing and prostration. Therefore, if anyone, in one of the bowings and prostrations of prayer, says «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ» one time and «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى» one time and «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي وَبِحَمْدِهِ» one time, or adds «وَبِحَمْدِهِ» to one of the two previous glorifications, then he has obeyed the command of God and His Prophet, and his prayer is correct, even though he has said only «سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ» three times or even one time in other bowings and prostrations of prayer, or even has been silent calmly, as most scholars of madhhabs have said so. However, if he does not say «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ» or «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى» or the glorification of God with His praise in any of the bowings and prostrations of prayer, then his prayer is void and needs to be redone, even though he says «سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ» or another dhikr three times in each of its bowings and prostrations; because he has not obeyed the command of God and His Prophet. This is an important point that Allamah Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani, may God protect him, has explained; as one of his companions informed us, he said:

«سَأَلْتُ الْمَنْصُورَ عَنْ أَدْنَى مَا يُجْزِي مِنَ التَّسْبِيحِ فِي الصَّلَاةِ، فَقَالَ: ثَلَاثُ تَسْبِيحَاتٍ: <سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ> وَ<سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى> وَ<سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ وَبِحَمْدِهِ>، قُلْتُ: أَلَا يُجْزِي <سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ> ثَلَاثًا؟ فَقَالَ: لَا، ثُمَّ قَالَ: كُلُّ صَلَاةٍ لَا يُسَبَّحُ اللَّهُ فِيهَا بِاسْمِهِ الْعَظِيمِ فَلَيْسَتْ بِصَلَاةٍ، وَكُلُّ صَلَاةٍ لَا يُسَبَّحُ اللَّهُ فِيهَا بِاسْمِهِ الْأَعْلَى فَلَيْسَتْ بِصَلَاةٍ، وَكُلُّ صَلَاةٍ لَا يُسَبَّحُ اللَّهُ فِيهَا بِحَمْدِهِ فَلَيْسَتْ بِصَلَاةٍ»; “I asked Mansoor about the least glorification that is adequate in prayer, so he said: ‘Three glorifications: «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ», «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى», and «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي وَبِحَمْدِهِ»’, I said: ‘Is saying «سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ» three times not adequate?’, he said: ‘No’, then he said: ‘Any prayer in which God is not glorified by His Great Name is not a prayer, and any prayer in which God is not glorified by His Most High Name is not a prayer, and any prayer in which God is not glorified by His praise is not a prayer’”.

It appears that this important point has remained hidden from scholars of madhhabs; because they either consider that the glorification is not obligatory in any of the bowings and prostrations, or consider that it is obligatory in all of them, but they have not considered it limited to these three manners, and for example, they have thought that it is adequate to say «سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ», and therefore, the statement of Allamah Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani, may God protect him, is a distinguished and original statement.

Yes, sufficing to the mentioned glorifications in one of the bowings and prostrations is the least prayer that one can suffice to in times of necessity; such as in time of war, danger, disease, difficult journey, being worried that the time of prayer may pass, or being worried that the time of an important need may pass, but it is not desirable to suffice to it at other times, but rather it is considered impermissible; because God Almighty has said: ﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ ذِكْرًا كَثِيرًا[5]; “O you who believed! Remember God with much remembrance”, while certainly, one who does not remember Him in bowing or prostration, or remembers Him only one time, does not remember Him much, and this means disobeying His command, which is not permissible. Moreover, such a thing is considered one of the characteristics of hypocrites; as God Almighty has described them: ﴿وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَى يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا[6]; “And when they stand up for prayer, they stand with laziness and pretend for people, and they do not remember God but little”, while certainly, it is not permissible to be like hypocrites. Therefore, not remembering God in some of the bowings and prostrations of prayer, or sufficing to His remembrance only one time in them, is wrong except in times of necessity; as one of our companions informed us, he said:

«سَمِعْتُ الْمَنْصُورَ يَقُولُ: لَا يُجْزِي الْمُصَلِّي فِي رُكُوعِهِ وَلَا سُجُودِهِ أَقَلُّ مِنْ ثَلَاثِ تَسْبِيحَاتٍ، وَذَلِكَ لِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى: ﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ ذِكْرًا كَثِيرًا، وَقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: ﴿وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا، فَمَنْ سَبَّحَ فِي رُكُوعِهِ أَوْ سُجُودِهِ أَقَلَّ مِنْ ثَلَاثِ تَسْبِيحَاتٍ فَلَا صَلَاةَ لَهُ، إِلَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ خَائِفًا أَوْ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ»; “I heard Mansoor say: No less than three glorifications are adequate for the praying person in his bowing and prostration, and it is because of the words of God Almighty that has said: ‘O you who believed! Remember God with much remembrance’, and said: ‘And they do not remember God but little’, so whoever says less than three glorifications in his bowing or prostration, there is no prayer for him, unless he is fearful, sick, or on a journey”.

Also, one of our companions informed us, he said:

«صَاحَبْتُ الْمَنْصُورَ سِنِينَ مِنْ عُمُرِي، فَوَجَدْتُهُ يَقُولُ فِي كُلِّ رُكُوعٍ: <سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ> ثَلَاثًا، وَفِي كُلِّ سُجُودٍ: <سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى وَبِحَمْدِهِ> ثَلَاثًا، إِلَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ مُتَنَفِّلًا أَوْ عَلَى حَاجَةٍ مُهِمَّةٍ، فَيَقُولُهُمَا مَرَّةً وَاحِدَةً، وَأَحْيَانًا يَقْتَصِدُ فَيَقُولُ فِي الرُّكُوعِ: <سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ، سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ، سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ>، وَفِي السُّجُودِ: <سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى، سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى، سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى وَبِحَمْدِهِ>»; “I accompanied Mansoor for some years of my life, so I found him saying «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ» three times in every bowing, and saying «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى وَبِحَمْدِهِ» three times in every prostration, unless he would perform a supererogatory prayer, or would have something important to do, so he would say those two one time, and sometimes he would do (something) between (these two), so he would say «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ، سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ، سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ» in bowing, and «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى، سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى، سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى وَبِحَمْدِهِ» in prostration”.

The result is that glorifying God three times in each bowing and prostration is obligatory for one who is not fearful of significant danger or harm, but glorifying God one time in each bowing and prostration, but rather in one of the bowings and prostrations of prayer in the three mentioned forms is adequate for one who is fearful of significant danger or harm.

2. There is no disagreement among scholars of madhhabs that reciting Surah Al-Fatihah in the third and fourth rak‘ats of prayer is permissible and adequate, but there is disagreement about the permissibility and adequacy of dhikr and glorification instead; in this way that most of them have not considered it permissible and adequate; because in their opinion, its issuance by the Prophet is not proven, but a group of them such as Hanafis and Shias have considered it permissible and adequate, and their opinion is correct; because its issuance by the Prophet may not be proven, but its issuance by the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet is proven[7], and the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet are more aware of the Sunnah of the Prophet. Rather, it is deduced from some of their narrations that the duty of the praying person in the third and fourth rak‘ats of prayer is to praise and glorify God, and the permissibility and adequacy of reciting Surah Al-Fatihah in both of them is because Surah Al-Fatihah contains the praise and glorification of God; as for example, it has been narrated from Ja‘far al-Sadiq, peace be upon him: «تُسَبِّحُ وَتَحْمَدُ اللَّهَ وَتَسْتَغْفِرُ لِذَنْبِكَ، فَإِنْ شِئْتَ فَاتِحَةَ الْكِتَابِ، فَإِنَّهَا تَحْمِيدٌ وَدُعَاءٌ»[8]; “(In these two rak‘ats) you may glorify and praise God, and ask forgiveness for your sin, or you may recite Surah Al-Fatihah if you want to; because it is praise and du‘a”. This is why Surah Al-Fatihah in the third and fourth rak‘ats of prayer is never recited in the form of jahr, that is, with a loud voice; because reciting it in these two rak‘ats is not for the purpose of reciting the Quran, but rather for the purpose of praise and du‘a, which is better to be recited with a low voice. However, those who have considered dhikr and glorification permissible and adequate instead, disagree as to which one is better. The opinion of Allamah Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani, may God protect him, is that reciting Surah Al-Fatihah for the Imam of congregational prayer and the one who prays alone, and dhikr and glorification for the one who follows Imam is better; as one of his companions informed us, he said:

«سَأَلْتُ الْمَنْصُورَ عَنِ الْقَوْلِ فِي الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ الْأَخِيرَتَيْنِ، فَقَالَ: إِنَّهُ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ الْمُوَسَّعِ، مَنْ شَاءَ قَرَأَ فَاتِحَةَ الْكِتَابِ، وَمَنْ شَاءَ سَبَّحَ، قُلْتُ: فَأَيُّهُمَا أَفْضَلُ؟ قَالَ: الْقِرَاءَةُ أَفْضَلُ لِلْإِمَامِ وَالْمُنْفَرِدِ، وَالتَّسْبِيحُ أَفْضَلُ لِلْمَأْمُومِ»; “I asked Mansoor about what is said in the third and fourth rak‘ats, so he said: ‘It is one of the things that are flexible, whoever wants to recite Surah Al-Fatihah may do so, and whoever wants to say the glorification may do so’, I said: ‘Which one is better?’, he said: ‘Recitation is better for the Imam and the one who is alone, and glorification is better for the one who follows Imam’”.

The dhikr and glorification that has been narrated in the narrations of the Ahl al-Bayt for the third and fourth rak‘ats, is «سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ، وَلَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ», which is adequate to be said one time; because it contains four dhikrs, and therefore is solely considered as “much remembrance”, although naturally, saying it three times is better and has more rewards.

3. Sending greeting of peace upon the Prophet, like sending blessing upon him, is obligatory in prayer; because of the words of God Almighty that has said: ﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ۚ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا[9]; “Indeed, God and His Angels send blessing upon the Prophet. O you who believed! Send blessing upon him, and greet him in a well manner”. Based on this, and considering the mutawatir and well-known narrations, it is obligatory for the praying person to send blessing upon the Prophet at the end of tashahhud, and to greet him in a well manner at the beginning of salaam, and it is in this way that he says «السَّلَامُ عَلَیْكَ أَیُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ» or «السَّلَامُ عَلَی النَّبِيِّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ». However, it is not obligatory for the praying person to greet others, but rather it is recommended, and it is in this way that he says «السَّلَامُ عَلَیْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِینَ», and then, if anyone is around him, turns toward him, and says «السَّلَامُ عَلَیْكُمْ» or «السَّلَامُ عَلَیْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ» or «السَّلَامُ عَلَیْكُمْ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ», and if no one is around him, turns toward the Angel to his right, and says one of the three phrases; because it is Sunnah, although it can be sufficed by saying «السَّلَامُ عَلَیْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِینَ».

4. For a person who has many missed prayers, and is afraid of death before performing them, and has limited time due to engaging in essential works of life, it is suffice to perform their obligatory and emphatically recommended acts; in this way that, for example, after reciting Surah Al-Fatihah, in the first rak‘at he recites Surah At-Tawhid, and in the second rak‘at recites a short Surah such as Al-Kawsar or Al-Asr or An-Nasr, then says «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْعَظِيمِ وَبِحَمْدِهِ» one time in the first bowing, and says «سُبْحَانَ رَبِّيَ الْأَعْلَى وَبِحَمْدِهِ» one time in the first prostration in order to perform the obligatory glorifications, and then, it is suffice to say «سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ» three times in the rest of the bowings and prostrations, and to omit qunoot, and to say «سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ، وَلَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ» one time in the third and fourth rak‘ats, and to say «السَّلَامُ عَلَیْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِینَ» or «السَّلَامُ عَلَیْكُمْ» after greeting the Prophet in salaam. This is because he may perform more prayers that he is responsible for comparing to normal times, not that he may perform that less amount more quickly so that he can get on with his worldly and unnecessary works sooner; because God Almighty has said: ﴿وَمَنْ يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَلْ لَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ يُسْرًا[10]; “Whoever fears God, He will make things easy for him”.

*For further explanations, refer to the arabic text.
↑[1] . Al-Waqi‘ah/ 74
↑[2] . Al-A‘la/ 1
↑[3] . Qaf/ 39
↑[4] . Ghafir/ 55
↑[5] . Al-Ahzab/ 41
↑[6] . An-Nisa/ 142
↑[7] . See: Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq, vol. 2, p. 100; Musannaf of ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 1, p. 327; al-Ahkam by Yahya ibn Husain, vol. 1, pp. 94 and 95; al-Awsat Fi al-Sunan Wa al-Ijma‘ Wa al-Ikhtilaf by ibn al-Mundhir, vol. 3, p. 114; Mukhtasar Ikhtilaf al-Ulama’ by al-Tahawi, vol. 1, p. 214; al-Kafi by al-Kulayni, vol. 3, p. 319; Man La Yahdaruh al-Faqih by ibn Babawayh, vol. 1, p. 392; Tahdhib al-Ahkam by al-Tusi, vol. 2, p. 98; Mustatrafat al-Sara’ir by ibn Idris, p. 130.
↑[8] . Tahdhib al-Ahkam by al-Tusi, vol. 2, p. 98
↑[9] . Al-Ahzab/ 56
↑[10] . At-Talaq/ 4
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