Sunday, August 14, 2022 AD / Muharram 16, 1444 AH
Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani
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Question & Answer
 

What is the law if cursing the killers and the enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt causes disagreements with brothers of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah? In Ziyarat Ashura, some of them are explicitly mentioned by name. Many people of Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah consider Yazid as a respected caliph of Muslims. Some of their scholars, such as Imam Muhammad al-Ghazali, do not consider cursing Yazid and his army permissible and believe that God may forgive them!

Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah do not consider cursing any of the companions permissible, but they are not sensitive to curse others, especially the killers and enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him and his family, rather it has been said that they agree on the permission to curse the person who has killed Husain, peace be upon him, or has ordered him to be killed or has allowed or has been satisfied with it, without specifying the name of Yazid[1], and their only disagreement is about the permission to curse Yazid by mentioning his name. However, the famous saying from Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Died 241 AH) is the permission to curse Yazid by mentioning his name; because it has been narrated that he told his son: «وَكَيْفَ لَا أَلْعَنُ مَنْ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي كِتَابِهِ؟!»; “And how can I not curse the one whom God Almighty has cursed in His Book ?!”, then his son said: «وَأَيْنَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ يَزِيدَ فِي كِتَابِهِ؟»; “Where did God curse Yazid in His Book?”, then Ahmad recited this verse: ﴿فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَنْ تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُوا أَرْحَامَكُمْ ۝ أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ فَأَصَمَّهُمْ وَأَعْمَى أَبْصَارَهُمْ﴾[2]; “Then is it possible that if you would achieve government, you would spread corruption on the earth and sever your ties of kinship?! They are the ones whom God has cursed, then He has made them deaf and blinded their eyes”[3]. The judge Abu Ya’la (Died 458 AH) has said after mentioning this narration: «هَذِهِ الرِّوَايَةُ إِنْ صَحَّتْ فَهِيَ صَرِيحَةٌ فِي مَعْنَى لَعْنِ يَزِيدَ»[4]; “If this narration is correct, it is specifying the permission to curse Yazid”. For this very reason, ibn al-Jawzi (Died 597 AH) has said: «أَجَازَ الْعُلَمَاءُ الْوَرِعُونَ لَعْنَهُ»[5]; “The pious scholars have considered it permissible to curse him”, and ibn Khallikan (Died 681 AH) has said about Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ali al-Tabari, called as ‘Imad al-Din and known as Kia al-Harasi, the Shafi’i jurist (Died 504 AH), that when he was asked about Yazid, he said: «فِيهِ لِأَحْمَدَ قَوْلَانِ تَلْوِيحٌ وَتَصْرِيحٌ، وَلِمَالِكٍ قَوْلَانِ تَلْوِيحٌ وَتَصْرِيحٌ، وَلِأَبِي حَنِيفَةَ قَوْلَانِ تَلْوِيحٌ وَتَصْرِيحٌ، وَلَنَا قَوْلٌ وَاحِدٌ التَّصْرِيحُ دُونَ التَّلْوِيحِ، وَكَيْفَ لَا يَكُونُ كَذَلِكَ؟! وَهُوَ اللَّاعِبُ بِالنَّرْدِ وَالْمُتَصَيِّدُ بِالْفُهُودِ وَمُدْمِنُ الْخَمْرِ، وَشِعْرُهُ فِي الْخَمْرِ مَعْلُومٌ»[6]; “About (how to curse) him there are two sayings from Ahmad, one is an allusion and the other is a specification, and two sayings from Malik, one is an allusion and the other is a specification, and two sayings from Abu Hanifa, one is an allusion and the other is a specification, but for us there is one saying and that is a specification without an allusion; and how can it not be so?! While he played backgammon and went hunting with cheetahs and was addicted to drinking and his poetry about drinking is famous”, and al-Taftazani (Died 793 AH) has said in Sharh al-‘Aqa’id al-Nasfiyyah: «الْحَقُّ أَنَّ رِضَا يَزِيدَ بِقَتْلِ الْحُسَيْنِ وَاسْتِبْشَارَهُ بِذَلِكَ وَإِهَانَتَهُ أَهْلَ بَيْتِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِمَّا تَوَاتَرَ مَعْنَاهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ تَفَاصِيلُهُ آحَادًا، فَنَحْنُ لَا نَتَوَقَّفُ فِي شَأْنِهِ بَلْ فِي إِيمَانِهِ، لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ وَعَلَى أَنْصَارِهِ وَأَعْوَانِهِ»[7]; “The truth is that Yazid’s satisfaction with the killing of Husain and his joy about it and his insult to the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him, have tawatur of the content, although its details are Wahid (news), so we do take his dignity into consideration, rather his lack of faith; may God curse him and his helpers and accomplices”, and ibn Taghribirdi (Died 874 AH) has also said: «لَا يَشُكُّ مَنْ لَهُ ذَوْقٌ وَعَقْلٌ صَحِيحٌ أَنَّ يَزِيدَ رَضِيَ بِقَتْلِ الْحُسَيْنِ وَسُرَّ بِمَوْتِهِ؛ فَهُوَ مَلْعُونٌ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ وَبِكُلِّ طَرِيقٍ»[8]; “Whoever has good manners and a sound intellect does not doubt that Yazid has been satisfied with killing Husain and has been happy with his death, so he is cursed anyway and in any case”, and al-Saffarini (Died 1188 AH) has also said: «أَكْثَرُ الْمُتَأَخِّرِينَ مِنَ الْحُفَّاظِ وَالْمُتَكَلِّمِينَ يُجِيزُونَ لَعْنَةَ يَزِيدَ اللَّعِينِ، كَيْفَ لَا؟! وَهُوَ الَّذِي فَعَلَ الْمُعْضِلَاتِ، وَهَتَكَ سِتْرَ الْمُخَدَّرَاتِ، وَانْتَهَكَ حُرْمَةَ أَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ، وَآذَى سِبْطَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَهُوَ حَيٌّ وَمَيِّتٌ، مَعَ مُجَاهَرَتِهِ بِشُرْبِ الْخُمُورِ وَالْفِسْقِ وَالْفُجُورِ»[9]; “Most of the recent memorizers of the Quran and theologians (from Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah) consider it permissible to curse Yazid the cursed. How can it not be so?! While he committed atrocities and abused the modest women and dishonored the Ahl al-Bayt and hurt the grandchild of the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him, in his life and death, not to mention that he publicly drunk wine and committed sins”, and ibn al-Jawzi (Died 597 AH) has also written a book about the permission to curse Yazid entitled “Ar-Radd ‘Ala al-Muta’assib al-‘Anid al-Mani’ Min Dham al-Yazid”; “An answer to the stubborn fanatic who forbade reprimanding Yazid”, in which he has answered Abd al-Mughith al-Harbi (Died 583 AH) who forbade doing so. Also, there is a detailed speech from ibn al-Wazir (Died 840 AH) in “al-‘Awasim wal-Qawasim”, in which he has answered Abu Hamid al-Ghazali from various aspects, and Amir Ali Shir Nava’i (Died 906 AH) has also answered him well, when he has composed:

ای که گفتی بر یزید و آل او لعنت مکن

زان که شاید حق تعالی کرده باشد رحمتش

آنچه با آل نبی کرد او اگر بخشد خدای

هم ببخشاید مرا گر کرده باشم لعنتش!

That is, O you who said: Do not curse Yazid and his family, because God may forgive him, if God forgives him for what he did to the household of the Prophet, He will also forgive me for cursing him.

↑[1] . Al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah by ibn Hajar al-Haytami, vol. 2, p. 638
↑[2] . Muhammad/ 22 and 23
↑[3] . Ar-Radd ‘Ala al-Muta’assib al-‘Anid al-Mani’ Min Dham al-Yazid by ibn al-Jawzi, p. 41
↑[4] . Al-Adab al-Shar’iyah by ibn Muflih, vol. 1, p. 247
↑[5] . Ar-Radd ‘Ala al-Muta’assib al-‘Anid al-Mani’ Min Dham al-Yazid by ibn al-Jawzi, p. 34
↑[6] . Wafiyyat al-A’yan by ibn Khallikan, vol. 3, p. 287
↑[7] . Sharh al-‘Aqa’id al-Nasfiyyah by al-Taftazani, p. 103
↑[8] . Mawrid al-Litafah Fi Man Wali al-Saltanah wal-Khilafah by ibn Taghribirdi, vol. 1, p. 67
↑[9] . Ghadha’ al-Albab Fi Sharh Manzumah al-Adab by al-Saffarini, vol. 1, p. 123
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