What is the ruling on Eid prayers and how are they performed?
There is disagreement among Muslims about the ruling on Eid prayer; respecting that the Shiite, the Hanafiyyah and some of the Shafi’i consider it obligatory objectively, and the Hanbali considers it obligatory sufficiently and the Malikiyah and most of the Shafi’i consider it as emphasized recommendation, but the truth is that just as the Friday prayer, it is obligatory objectively, and similar to that, it will be removed from those who have an excuse; because God, -contrary to most people’s assumption- has mentioned it in His book and the prophet has persevered it in his Sunnah and he has not abandoned it in any year; as one of our companions informed us and said:
«سَأَلْتُ الْمَنْصُورَ عَنْ صَلاةِ الْفِطْرِ وَ صَلاةِ الْأَضْحَى، فَقالَ: فَرِیضَتانِ، قُلْتُ: إنَّهُمْ یَقُولُونَ لَوْ كانَتا فَرِیضَتَیْنِ لَنَزَلَ فِیهِمَا الْقُرْآنُ، قالَ: وَ هَلْ یَعْلَمُونَ الْقُرْآنَ كُلَّهُ؟! قُلْتُ: لا، قالَ: فَلَوْ رَجَعُوا إِلَی الَّذِینَ یَعْلَمُونَ الْقُرْآنَ كُلَّهُ لَعَلَّمُوهُمْ، ثُمَّ سَكَتَ، فَقُلْتُ: جُعِلْتُ فِداكَ وَ هَلْ نَزَلَ فِیهِمَا الْقُرْآنُ؟ قالَ: نَعَمْ إِنَّ اللّهَ تَعَالَى یَقُولُ: ﴿وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ﴾ وَ ذَلِكَ صَلاةُ الْفِطْرِ وَ یَقُولُ: ﴿فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ﴾ وَ ذَلِكَ صَلاةُ الْأَضْحَى»; “I asked Mansoor about Fitr and Qurban prayers, then he said: they are obligatory, I said: they say that if they were obligatory they would be revealed in the Quran, he said: do they know the whole of Quran? I said: no, he said: then if they have referred to those who know the whole of Quran, they would have taught them, then he became silent, then I said: may I be your sacrifice, have Quran been revealed in about them? He said: yes, Almighty God says: <And to complete the number (of the days of Ramadan), and to glorify God that He has guided you> and that is the Fitr prayer, and He says: <So pray to your Lord and sacrifice> and that is the Qurban prayer”!
Of course, the conditions for the obligation of this prayer is similar to the conditions for the obligation of Friday prayer, and its differences with Friday prayer is in five things:
According to the Islamic Mutawatir narrations, the time of Eid prayer is from sunrise to noon, and therefore it will not be replaced by noon prayer.
According to the Islamic Mutawatir narrations, it is Sunnah to perform Eid prayer outside the city and under the sky, except in Mecca where it is better to perform it at Masjid al-Haram.
Third; the sermon
According to the Islamic Mutawatir narrations, the sermon is recited after the Eid prayer and reciting it before the Eid prayer is an invented-heresy by the Bani Umayyad.
Fourth; Adhan and Iqamah
According to the Islamic Mutawatir narrations, before the Eid prayer, Adhan and Iqamah are not recited and reciting Adhan and Iqamah before that is an invented-heresy by the Bani Umayyad.
According to the Islamic Mutawatir narrations, there are more Takbirat in the Eid prayer and this is a law that the Book of God refers to; as one of our companions informed us and said:
«سُئِلَ الْمَنْصُورُ عَنْ صَلاةِ الْعِیدِ، فَقالَ: ﴿وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ﴾ یَعْنِي شَهْرَ رَمَضانَ ﴿وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ﴾ یَعْنِي اثْنَتَيْ عَشْرَةَ تَكْبِیرَةً ﴿وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ﴾ یَعْنِي الْقُنُوتَ وَ لَیْسَ بِواجِبٍ»; “Mansoor was asked about the Eid prayer, so he said: <And to complete the number> means the month of Ramadan <And to glorify God that He has guided you> means twelve Takbirs <And perhaps you be thankful> means Qunut and is not obligatory”.
Therefore, more Takbirats in the Eid prayer is obligatory based on ﴿وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ﴾ and it is understood from Islamic narrations and saying of Mansoor Hashemi Khorasani may God protect him that the Sunnah is Twelve Takbirs; in this way that five Takbirs are in the first Rak’ah and four Takbirs are in the second Rak’ah in addition to Takbiratul Ihram and two Takbirs of Ruku, and it is recommended that among the Takbirs, a Qunut be recited in praising God and appreciating Him for the blessing of guidance and the blessings of the cattle.