|Translation of the Persian explanation of Shaykh Saleh Sabziwari|
Cognition standard; Necessity and unity
(I seek refuge to God from the expelled Shaytan
In the name of God the compassionate the merciful
Praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds, and peace be upon Mohammad and his purified family)
(From quadruple parts of the book)
Return to Islam; prefaces
(which means prefaces of return to Islam, means things that are necessary for returning to Islam before anything else and returning to Islam is not possible without them and they, as our master Al-Mansoor, has said, are two things: one is cognition standard which means its criterion that its recognition and obligation to it is necessary for cognition of Islam and the other one is impediments to cognition which their recognition and avoiding them is necessary for cognition of Islam. However someone might criticize that recognizing cognition standard is not possible and a so-called loop; same as saying recognition of cognition, while this means nothing; but this criticism will be solved easily with regarding to next subjects of the book; because our master, Mansour, has considered cognition standard something obvious and needless from recognition, and from here it turns out that interpretation of recognizing cognition standard is just simplification of interpretation and has been used for understanding the goal inevitably. But)
First preface; cognition standard
(Our master, Mansour says: ) Talking about the cognition standard in general and accordingly Islam’s cognition standard in details requires presenting a few introductions: (therefore, these few prefaces are about the cognition standard of everything and are not particularly about cognition of Islam, but they include the cognition of Islam accordingly because of course Islam is one of the things too and is recognizable by cognition standard just like other things. first preface is)
1. Necessity of cognition Standard
(Which means cognition standard is essential and is necessary for recognition, as he says: ) In order to recognize anything in the world, a standard is required and cognition of Islam is not an exception from this rule (which means although cognition of Islam is more honorable and more valuable than cognition of other things, but in the sense that it is a cognition, it is not different from other cognitions and needs a criterion, meaning a standard just like them. Then he says). By cognition we mean distinguishing between one thing and another, such as distinguishing between good and bad or between true and false, or between right and wrong (it is understood from this word of our master Al-Mansoor, that cognition is about the paradox world which means the world that there are opposite things in it and it means making distinction between things and obviously distinction of things from each other, is about their nature, scilicet they have difference with each other by their nature and nature is about the world of creations; for this reason, complete and detailed cognition of God is not possible; because He does not have any nature unlike His creations and He is a pure existence and the brief and limited cognition which is possible about Him is with regards to the contradiction between attributes of Him and attributes of others; for example cognition of Him as an ancient and eternal is possible with regards to others as creations, or cognition of Him as knowing and almighty is possible with regards to ignorance and weakness of others. Therefore we see in a narration that He has created the creations to be known; therefore cognition of one thing, is nothing but understanding its distinctions and differences with other things and by this reason, God has mentioned it in His holy book as “Forghan”, which means something that makes distinguishment between other things, then he says: ) and this would be possible when a standard (meaning a criterion and a measure), for distinguishing exists. It is evident that without any standard, judgment is not possible (which means it is not possible that a human gets knowledge of conformity or non-conformity of something with another thing without any standard and criterion. Therefore, the purpose of judgment here, is knowledge, not judging. Although, judging without a standard may not be possible; because any judge, even if he is so cruel and ignorant, has a wrong and imaginary standard for himself, for example personal interest which is the standard of judgment for many people. Therefore, the interpretation of our master Al-Mansoor, is an accurate interpretation which says: judgment is not possible without standard; because every judgment, including true or false, needs a standard, even a wrong one. Then he says: ) and if it was supposedly possible (which means if we suppose that judgment means decreeing and with regards to this, first), any person will judge in a different way (because everyone has a different nature and taste and there is no common base between them for judgment) and this will ultimately make the judgment impossible; because without any standard, it is not recognizable that which judgment is correct and which is not (therefore, the possibility of judgment without standard in the first step, will conclude to its impossibility in the next step. Then he says: ). The Muslims’ disagreement which has led to their weaknesses and the strengths of their enemies, could have been possibly caused by lack of cognition standard or non-commitment to it (because it became known that without cognition of the standard and obligation to it which means commitment to it, everyone will judge in a different way and therefore every sect and every group of Muslims will judge in a different way and disagreements will appear and disagreement will cause Muslims to spend their time and energy on war and battle and destroying their world and hereafter instead of building their world and hereafter and will make their enemies dominate them) and this makes the necessity of cognition standard and commitment to it, more clear than ever (that’s why he says more clear than ever, because the need for a standard with regards to the need for cognition was evident before and the need for resolving disagreements between Muslims, makes it more evident. This feature, i.e. the necessity of cognition standard, was the first preface. But the second preface which is the second feature of cognition standard is).
2. Unity of cognition standard
(The meaning of unity of cognition standard is its oneness; namely cognition standard cannot be two things or more and speaking about cognition standards, is wrong. our master Al-Mansoor, says about this: )
Muslims’ disagreement are caused by differences between their cognition of Islam; it means that different Muslim individuals and groups have different cognition of Islam (either Islamic believes or Islamic rules) and do not tolerate others’ cognition of Islam (which means they do not stand it; because they assume others’ cognition of Islam is false and it is natural that they cannot tolerate a false thing). It is obvious that relief from this disagreement is not possible without achieving a unit cognition (because until there is several cognitions of Islam and every group assumes one thing as true and others as false, it cannot be expected that there would be no difference, rather this assumption, is a disagreement itself and will lead to controversy and conflict naturally and inevitably.) and in order to achieve a unit cognition, a unit standard is required (this is a very important point. Why? Because of). Numerous standards necessitates numerous cognitions (given that one thing would be known in numerous ways with numerous standards and every standard will require a kind of cognition; as it is possible that everyone rely on a standard; because relying on numerous standards is not possible at the same time and is out of human’s ability) and numerous cognitions causes dispute (as it became clear) and dispute is not good for Muslims (this interpretation of our master Al-Mansoor, is an amazing interpretation; because it is very simple from one side and is very correct and meaningful on the other side; given that some people assume and show that dispute between Muslims is natural and is not a problem and therefore trying to resolve it is useless, whereas every misery which has happened to Muslims has come from this natural and flawless dispute! How is it possible to know the source of all Muslims’ miseries something natural and flawless?! Obviously it can’t be, but they embellish it like Satan and introduce it natural and flawless so that no effort will be done to resolve it. These are the people whom our master, Mansoor, issues order against and says: dispute is not good for Muslims); as God has said: «وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا ۚ»; “Hold firmly the rope of God together and do not disperse” and this is also an evident that the rope of God is unit; since if it was numerous, clutching to it would not lead to unity, rather would be a factor for division (both because clutching to numerous will not cause unity, even will cause variety and because God has mentioned His rope as a singular word and not a plural word and this implies its unity)!
Moreover, it must be noted that the truth, has a unit and non-multiple (which means it cannot increase) essence (which means objectivity and characteristics); since it is actually (when it is considered apart from all the credits) nothing but the existence (the intended purpose of our master Al-Mansoor is that the truth, when is considered totally bare and apart from all different titles, is only the existence which is placed against the non-existence; just as the false, when is considered apart from different titles, is only non-existence, meaning non-existence of truth; for example justice which is known as the truth, is something that actually has existence in the real world, but oppression which is known as false is nothing but leaving justice and its non-existence; like the heat which actually does exist in the space and cold which actually does not exist, but is non-existence of heat. Therefore, false has an imaginary and fictitious nature, while truth, is real. Let’s say another example to make it more clear: when polytheists were saying that Lat and Hobal are god, their speech was false because Lat and Hobal were not really god and their divinity did not exist as polytheists were imagining about them, whereas when Muslims say: God is one, their word is truth because uniqueness of God does really exist and it is an objective truth. The intended purpose of our master Al-Mansoor from saying that the truth, is nothing but existence in its nature, is this and then he says about the truth description) that has an extensive (that means indissoluble) and non-plural essence (and this is the feature of existence; it means that even if existence applies to multiple natures in the world, it is still unit and will not be plural; for example, existence of human and existence of horse and existence of camel and existence of tree and existence of stone, have no difference in the sense of being an existence and will not become different with the difference of natures that are attributed to them; as it has been said that human has existence and horse has existence and tree has existence and in all of these cases, just one meaning is comprehended from existence; because just one type of existence is in the world and there is not several types of existence in it) and this requires the unity of its cognition (which means the unity of cognition of the truth) and accordingly the unity of its cognition standard (which means regarding that truth is nothing but existence and existence is really unit, truth will be unit necessarily and when it became unit necessarily, it will become known in a unit way necessarily and it is not possible that it becomes known in several ways and therefore, it needs a standard of cognition; because a unit cognition, will be found by a unit standard and several standards, will require several cognitions. This is the intended purpose of our master Al-Mansoor, from these words. However, he speaks in another way to explain this important point more and says: ). In other words, the truth is creation or divine legislation of God originated from His essential unity and therefore, there is no diversity in it and it cannot be diversified (because it became clear that truth is nothing but existence and existence is either real and natural like God’s creations or is legal and inventive like God’s laws which in both cases, it has been found by a creator regarding that it is an existence, while the creator, which means God, is unit and does not have multiplicity; therefore, truth which has been found from Him, would be unit and it is not possible that it becomes multiple and different; because multiplicity and difference in God’s works is not possible); As God has said about His creation: «مَا تَرَىٰ فِي خَلْقِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ مِنْ تَفَاوُتٍ ۖ»; “You may not see any diversity in creation of God” and has said about His legislation: «وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِنْدِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا»; “Should it come from anyone other than God, there would have been so many diversities in it.” (And in other part of the book, he points to this honorable verse in addition to these two honorable verses, which has said: «وَمَا أَمْرُنَا إِلَّا وَاحِدَةٌ»; which means “and indeed our work is just one unit” with this meaning that multiplicity is not possible in it; therefore our master Al-Mansoor concludes this way and says: ). Therefore, the truth, whether it is the creation of God or His divine legislation, is a unit and non-plural existence, that anything other than that will be considered as falsehood; As God has said: «فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلَّا الضَّلَالُ ۖ»; “Then what comes after the truth but deviance?!” (it means that despite some people’s assumption, there is nothing after truth with the title of less truth and truth has not such hierarchy; so he says: ).
Briefly, the truth is unit; whereas it has a unit origin and a unit requires unit cognition and a unit cognition, needs a unit standard (this was the summery of this subject, but the next subject is about those who denied the unity of truth and unity of cognition standard during the history, either before Islam or after that, and either among Muslims or among others).
wa salamualaikum wa rahmatullah
↑ . Aal-i Imran/ 103.
↑ . Al-Mulk/ 3.
↑ . An-Nisa/ 82.
↑ . Yunus/ 32.