The answers of your questions are as follow:
1. Marriage is the requirement of one side and acceptance of the other, and with this description one party cannot fulfill both the requirement and the acceptance. Therefore, the girl’s acceptance is necessary for having the marriage, and it is not possible without her notice about the godfather’s father’s requirement. Yes, the girl’s father, if he is not lunatic and realizes the girl’s expedient, can accept the godfather’s father’s requirement on the part of the girl, as God has said: ﴿قَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُنْكِحَكَ إِحْدَى ابْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ عَلَىٰ أَنْ تَأْجُرَنِي ثَمَانِيَ حِجَجٍ ۖ﴾; “Said, I wish to wed you one of these, my two daughters, on [the condition] that you serve me for eight years”; except in this a case, the pleasure of godfather’s father from the girl without her notice of marriage is not empty of difficulties, unless it would be to extend of looking at her hair or face while neglecting.
2. For the girl’s marriage the father’s permission is sufficient and his presence in the marriage location is not necessary.
3. The Mahramiyat of the godfather with the girl, after the abolishment of the godfather’s father marriage with the girl, will not be abolished.
4. For the marriage the father’s permission is necessary and the godfather’s permission is not sufficient, but if obtaining the permission of her father -even without his presence in the marriage location- has apparent corruption and difficulties, the girl’s satisfaction for having the marriage is sufficient; except that in this case, the father can abrogate the marriage, after noticing of that, when it is against the girl’s expedient. As if one of our companion informed us, said:
«قُلْتُ لِلْمَنْصُورِ: هَلْ یَحِلُّ لِلْعَذْراءِ أَنْ تَتَزَوَّجَ بِغَیْرِ إِذْنِ أَبِیها؟ قالَ: لا و لا كَرامَةَ، قُلْتُ: وَ إِنْ كانَتْ رَشِیدَةً؟ قالَ: وَ إِنْ كانَتْ رَشِیدَةً، قُلْتُ: فَإِنْ تَزَوَّجَتْ بِغَیْرِ إِذْنِ أَبِیها فَتَریٰ أَنَّ زَواجَها باطِلٌ؟ قالَ: لا إِلّا أَنْ تَزَوَّجَتْ بِغَیْرِ كُفْوٍ وَ جاءَ أَبُوها یُخاصِمُها فَلَهُ أَنْ یَنْقُضَ ٱلنِّكاحَ»; “I said to his honor Mansoor: Is it Halal for a virgin to marry without her father’s permission? He said: No, it is not worthy, I said: Although she was full-grow? He said: Although she was full-growth, I said: if she marries without his father’s permission, will you consider his marriage abrogated? He said: No, unless she marries with the non-similar-level, and her father comes and discusses with her, then (her father) can abrogate the marriage”.
With this description, the marriage with virgin without her father’s permission is Haram, but it is not abrogated.
5. Adopting a child who has parent is nonsense, unless his/her parent, by virtue of an excuse, was not able to take care or, by virtue of an imperfection, does not have its qualifications, and in such a case, it is obligatory for the adopter to aware the child, after reaching the puberty age, about his/her parent; as if the God has said: ﴿وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَامَىٰ ۖ قُلْ إِصْلَاحٌ لَهُمْ خَيْرٌ ۖ وَإِنْ تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ ۚ﴾; “And they ask you about orphans. Say, "Improvement for them is best. And if you mix your affairs with theirs (in your life) - they are your brothers (and religious sisters)”.
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